Animal Farm - Chapter Eight
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Summary:

At the beginning and again at the end of the chapter, the animals notice that the commandments on the barn have been changed in regards to killing other animals and drinking alcohol, but both times, they simply blame their minds for being faulty and go about their work as before. After Napoleon's executions, the animals are suffering, but after Squealer gives statistics showing life was better now than with Mr. Jones. Given credit for all the good fortune on animal farm, Napolean is given the title "Leader", a ceremonial gun fire on his birthday, a peom by Minimus in his honor, and a large portrait painted on the big barn. Napoleon tries making a deal with either Mr. Frederick or Mr. Pilkington, but after making a deal with Mr. Frederick, Mr. Whymper tells him the money is fake. Mr. Frederick attacks the farm with other men; killing multiple animals and blowing up the windmill with dynamite, but the animals soon grow patriotic and the pigs celebrate with whiskey they found in the farmhouse's basement. Napoleon thinks that he is dying from alcohol poisoning, but later he finds out that he is going to be okay and Squealer lets everyone know that he will be fine.


Characters/Event Parallels:
 The Altered Commandments:
"No animal shall drink alcohol in excess".
"No animal shall kill any other animal without cause":
Clover and a few of the other animals remember that the amendment forbade killing, but when Muriel reads it, they blame their faulty memories when trying to remember what it used to say. This shows how the pigs continue to corrupt the previous laws of Animalism for their own benefit. Even when the animals physically see Squealer rewriting on the walls, changing the original commandments, the animals do not show any signs of rebellion or disagreement. "Napoleon is always right", has become the new saying for Boxer, which helps him continue to support Napoleon even when he changes information/laws of Animalism (pg. 48). After working for so long and all the changing information, the animals have forgotten what life on the farm had been like before Mr. Jones. Even in Russia, the working class did not revolt or rebellion when Stalin altered principles. Stalin altered ideals of equal work and equal compensation in order to support the politcally and militarily powerful. Stalin focused so much propoganda on how well the country was doing and supporting the country, the citizens forgot of life before the revolution. They were also overworked. He used Karl Marx's theories of "dictatorship over the proletariat" as reference to his actions to change information. By uniting the working class together and describing life is better now, just as Napoleon did, Stalin made sure the working class did not even think of rebellion.

Napoleon's New Image:

Napoleon no longer comes outiside except during grand ceremonies. He is creating a large image for himself. Minimus creates a poem that honor Napoleon, "Comrade Napoleon". Napoleon’s birthday becomes a holiday, and all animals are encouraged to praise Napoleon every accomplishment and good thing that happens on Animal Farm. Stalin uses propoganda the same way as Napoleon, inflating his image and making himself look like he caring about the working class, the country's needs, while portraying power by constantly wearing his military clothes with flashy medals in front of a large army. The working class's only time they see Stalin is on large posters that litter the streets and buildings of Russia and at a very few ceremonies. Stalin had books and billboards that were given out to the working class with his printed face on the cover. Falsification of documents and photographs was a common tactic used by Stalin to highlight his figure as a hero. Stalin created a "cult of personality" of himself, a "god-like" figure, often naming places after his name, although it was against the Marixt philosophy he believed in (Napoleon going against the philosophy of Animalism). Stalin want to create a 'grand' image for himself, showcasing his power and care for the working class, as the protector and father of the nation.

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Minimus Poem/Changing Music:

Minimus's poem shows how uncritical the animals are toward Napoleon's actions and decisions in which they have no say. The poem glorifies Napoleon as the leader and everything his does is essential to Animal Farm and its success. Instead of opposing it, the animals let it speak for them. The peom explains the animals' devotion to Napoleon, and the poem further praises him with lines like "Fountain of Happiness". The poem was created to mislead the animals, paralleling actual anthems and patriotic codes of the working classes under communist governments. Napoleon has changed the old anthems from the "Beasts of England" during times of Revolution, into "Comrade Napoleon" because now that the revolution his over, he wants a song that will create a voice for the animals, even when they don't know what it means. As


old slogans/anthems grow old and the animals begin to

question, Napoleon changes the anthems; a strategy that keeps the animals patriotic

The National Anthem of the Soviet Union was introduced in 1944 instead of "The Internationale". Similar, to "Comrade Napoleon" Anthem, Stalin's government created an anthem that was also misleading and extremely patriotic towards the country. Most of the songs Stalin created, were short and filled with choruses. The choruses were used to convey the message of "collectiveness" in the people under one nation. The songs were easy for the poorly-educated pheasants to remember and repeat continuously, paralleling to the uneducated sheep often chanting the songs while working. With the masses chanting the songs, Stalin knew it would have a binding feeling in the people; a hypnotic effect. By singing this every day, the working class like the animals would find themselves chanting in support for both the hours of labor that went into the betterment of the country and their great leader. Well known music from before, like folk music, was hijacked or rewritten under Stalin's direction to erase connotations of revolution.

Sheep:
They are repeat the slogans and songs describing Animalism "Four legs good, two legs bad". But Napoleon soon changes the slogans into anthem for himself "Comrade Napoleon". The sheep represent the poor farmers in the fields of Russia that have little idea of Stalin's purpose and violent actions, but ignorantly chant in his glory. Many people chanted for Stalin, without knowing what they were supporting, and then they found themselves working harder in the glory of the country.



National Anthem of the Soviet Union, 1944:
An unbreakable union of free republics,
Great Russia joined together forever.
Long live the creation of the will of the peoples,
The united, the mighty Soviet Union!
Chorus:
Be glorified, our fatherland, united and free! The sure bulwark of the friendship of the peoples! The Soviet banner is the flag of the people, Let it lead from victory to victory!
Through storms the sun of freedom has shined upon us,
And the great Lenin has lighted the way
Stalin has taught us faithfulness to the people,
To labour, and inspired us to great feats!


The Timber Deal:
Napoleon is trying to sell his pile of timber to either Mr. Pilkington or Mr. Frederick. As Napoleon builds friendly relations with Mr. Pilkington, he makes all the animals hate Mr. Frederick, and he even creates a new slogan "Death to Frederick". But Napoleon soon makes the final deal with Mr. Frederick anyways, and the animals are stunned. At the outset of WWII, Stalin was trying to decide whether to join the capitalist Allies or facist Germans. He was reluctant to go to war. Unexpectedly, Stalin signed the Non-Agression Pact with Adolf Hitler, symbolized by the quick deal of selling timber with Mr. Frederick. The pact stated that the two countries would not fight one another. It stated that if Germany attacked the Western countries, such as Poland and Great Britain, Russia would not attack Germany and create a second German front. Although people thought Stalin could go with the Allies, but he surprises many with his choice with Germany, similar to the shock of the animals in Napoleon's decision.


The Fake Money:

Even when the animals hear of Mr. Frederick's abuse towards his animals, the do not attack under Napoleon's direction. Napoleon is outraged to find out Mr. Frederick used fake money in the deal to buy timber. After the animals, found out about the fake deal, Mr. Frederick and his men attacked soon after. The Germans had signed the Non-Aggression Pact to mislead the Soviet Union. The pact was supposed to last for ten years after the signing, it lasted for two. Once the Soviet Union had signed the pact, the Germans attacked Russia even when Russia had not attacked Germany as Germany took over Poland. The attack of the men had been a surprise, even when the animals had never attacked, knowing their comrades were being hurt like in Russia.
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The Battle of the Windmill:

Fifteen men attacked Animal Farm with six guns. They destroyed the windmill with the only object that could do harm to its thick walls, explosives. The men were ruthless, killing many animals including a cow, sheep, and geese. The windmill was completely destroyed also, the one structure built since Midsummer's Eve, their revolution. Hitler's forces killed twenty-five million Russians soon after they signed the Non-Aggression pact. They completely destroyed most of Russia's internal infrastructure that has been built since the time of the Russian Revolution. The Germans only wanted goods and people from Russia.

Patriotic Celebrations/Burials:
The animals spend two days in celebrating their 'victory' at the Battle of the Windmill in keeping their land, while conducting ceremonial burials of all the animals that were killed with gunshots. Soviet Russia used the same tactic during WWII; use the heroism of individuals to reinforce the patriotism of the survivors. By transfering the glory of the state upon the individuals, Stalin helped the individuals give their glory back to the state.


Significant Quotes:

“You would often hear one hen remark to another, “Under the guidance of our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, I have laid five eggs in six days”; or two cows, enjoying a drink at the pool, would exclaim, “Thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon, how excellent this water tastes!” (pg. 78)
-From all the propoganda, music, and poems that describe Stalin as a hero and protector of the country. After chanting anthems about how great life is, every animal gives credit to Napoleon to every successful achievement and good fortune. When Stalin changing information, he made people believ life now was better than ever before, they began to appreciate everything in terms of the success of Stalin and the new country after the revolution.

Some of the animals remembered - or thought they remembered - that the Sixth Commandment decreed "No animal shall kill any other animal." And though no one cared to mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was felt that the killings which had taken place did not square with this.
-The animals keep trying to remember what life had been like before. But Stalin had manipulated the information that was given out to the working class so much that they forgot what life used to be like when constant work was not under the glory of the nation but the glory of oneself. Stalin had painted the image as leader of Russia, without anyone else. He photocopied pictures of enemies he had killed like Trosky so the working class could never question his leadership and statistics given to them, "Napoleon is always right" (pg. 48). He also overworks the working class, through inspiring songs and propoganda, so much in the industry and on farms that they forget what labor conditions had been existant prior to the Revolution.

"What matter? We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills if we like it. You do not appreciate, comrade, the mighty thing that we have done. The enemy was in occupation of this very ground that we stand upon. And now- thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon- we have won every inch of it back again" (pg.105)!
- Squealer had convinced everyone that Napoleon had did alot and led them to victory when really he did not do anything. They had lost the battle but because they were so naive to the information. They had not realized that they had been lied to. Stalin was very good at convincing people of what he wanted. Stalin's use of persuasion created a dominion that he could easily rule if people believed what he wanted them to.


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http://www.litcharts.com/lit/animalfarm/chapter8

http://bookstove.com/classics/animal-farm-quotes-and-analysis/

http://soundslikethefuture.com/2010/07/29/how-effective-can-music-be-as-a-means-of-political-propaganda/

Historical Evidence:
The poem Cult of Personality refers back to Minimus' Poem Called Comrade Napoleon.
In the Cult of Personality it says how Stalin is the leader of the people and how he takes care of the people.
In the end of Cult of Personality it says, "Sun reflects by millions of hearts." but in the book it says, "Fire when i gaze at thy calm and commanding eye Like the sun in the sky Comrade Napoleon."

In Animal Farm the Young Pig named Pinkeye had to taste all the food before it was given to Napoleon to make sure that it was not poisoned. On timelines.com it said "Stalin did not taste any food unless his closest advisors includuing Malenkov and Nikita Kruschev tried the food first."

In Animal Farm Napoleon makes his birthday a big celebratio. He orders the animals to shoot on his birthday making him a national figure. He also was referred to as "Protector of the Sheep Fold". On december 1939 to celebrate his 60th birthday he was awarded the Order of Lenin and given the title "Hero of Socialist Labour".