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Summary:
This chapter introduces most of the characters in the book. Old Major gives a speech about his near death, and his plan to over throw the humans on the farm. He seems to convince all the animals, who after hearing his song all sang it in unison.


Czar Nicolas II:



Czar Nicolas II was the Czar of Russia before and during the Bolshevik Revolution. His son was plagued by Hemophilia and Nicolas was bent on finding a cure for the ailment. He began neglecting the needs of the peasants of Russia while attempted to find someone who could help his son. He would eventually find a man named Rasputin who seemed to be helping the boy. The people thought that Raputin now had control of the government. They decided to Revolt against the government which would eventually result in the deaths of Rasputin and the entire Royal Family.



Mr Jones and Czar Nicolas II:
Mr. Jones is the neglectful farmer who owns and takes care of the farm. The farm had recently fallen on hard times and Mr. Jones has resorted to alcoholism. He does not properly take care of the animals and he only gives them the bare minimum of food that they need to survive. In real life Mr. Jones represents Czar Nicolas II. He neglects the farm animals just like the Czar had neglected the peasants of Russia. He does not properly feed or house the animals of the farm exactly the way Nicolas did not provide food and shelter for the peasants.



Description of Farm and symbolism:
"We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty....No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth."



Russia's anthems:
The Prayer of Russians (1816-1833)
God Save the Tsar! (1833-1917)
The Worker's Marseillaise (1905-1917)
The Internationale (1922-1944)

Beasts of England:
"Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland,
Beasts of every land and clime,
Hearken to my joyful tidings
Of the golden future time.

Soon or late the day is coming,
Tyrant Man shall be o'erthrown,
And the fruitful fields of England
Shall be trod by beasts alone.

Rings shall vanish from our noses,
And the harness from our back,
Bit and spur shall rust forever,
Cruel whips no more shall crack.

Riches more than mind can picture,
Wheat and barley, oats and hay,
Clover, beans, and mangel-wurzels
Shall be ours upon that day.

Bright will shine the fields of England,
Purer shall its waters be,
Sweeter yet shall blow its breezes
On the day that sets us free.

For that day we all must labour,
Though we die before it break;
Cows and horses, geese and turkeys,
All must toil for freedom's sake.

Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland,
Beasts of every land and clime,
Hearken well and spread my tidings
Of the golden future time." (p.32-33)




Quotes:
"Mr. Jones, of the Manor Farm, had locked the hen-houses for the night, but was too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes.....drew himself a last glass of beer from the barrel in the scullery, and made his way up to bed, where Mrs. Jones was already snoring." (p.25)

"Old Major (so he was always called, though the name under which he had been exhibited was Willingdon Beauty) was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour's sleep in order to hear what he had to say." (p.25)

"As for the dogs, when they grow old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round their necks and drowns them in the nearest pond." (p.30)